The Republic of India is the second most populous country in the world. An estimated 400 million are children between 0 and 18 years of age. Although acceleration in economic growth has made India among the 10 fastest growing developing countries, the country's per capita income remains low and 26 per cent of the population live below the income poverty line.

India has the largest number of child labourers in the world. There is widespread poverty, unemployment, increasing rural-urban migration, attraction of city life and a lack of political will to address the increasing numbers of children on the streets. Street children are subject to malnutrition, hunger, health problems, substance abuse, theft, as well as physical and sexual abuse. [Ref. CSC-UK]